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Friday, August 11, 2017

The 35th anniversary of the compact disc

©Mark Ollig

Aug. 17, 1982 at the Philips manufacturing plant in Langenhagen, Germany, history was being made.

Rolling down their assembly line were thousands of round, palm-sized plastic plates giving off a shiny rainbow luster.

It was the “passing of the torch” from analog vinyl records to digital plastic-coated discs.

When I was in high school, a CD was a “certificate of deposit” a person would buy at the bank and hold on to and earn some interest.

CD also stands for compact disc.

“It’s 2017; what’s a compact disc, grandpa?”

Going back to 1979, Holland’s Royal Philips Electronics and the Sony Corp. of Japan engineers formed a task force to design a revolutionary type of digital audio disc.

While Philips manufactured the compact disc and laser technology, Sony Corp. contributed their digital encoding expertise.

Not long ago, I was having lunch with my youngest son.

Our conversation found its way to discussing how my generation listened to music when I was in high school.

I told him we used cassette and 8-track tape players, 33 LP and 45 rpm vinyl records, transistor radios, the home stereo tuner, and of course, the AM car radio.

As I described how a 45 rpm record held only one song on each side, he shook his head at me in disbelief.

When I told him we played those records on our hi-fi stereo turntables, he tilted his head to one side wondering what I was talking about.

I explained hi-fi meant “high-fidelity” sound, and described why we called it a “tuner” and a record player a “turntable.”

Back in the day, yours truly would buy a single 45 rpm record just for the song recorded on the one side.

The flip-side of the record usually had a filler song we didn’t listen to – unless it was a Beatles 45 rpm record, in which case both sides were played.

For those wondering, it was March 31, 1949, when RCA introduced the 45 rpm vinyl record to the world.

A CD’s appearance reminds me of a vinyl 45 rpm record.

CD’s have a spiral of tiny pits in them where the encoded digital data bits (1s and 0s) are stored – somewhat similar to the jagged spiral grooves on a vinyl record which holds analog information.

The CD’s audio is scanned by a laser to obtain the data; somewhat analogous to how a record player’s needle in the tone-arm captures the modulated analog sound from the vinyl’s grooves, while the record spins.

The popular thing about CDs is that they don’t wear out like my old 45 rpm records; plus, they held more than two songs.

The sound quality from the CD remains constant for a long period, as there’s no physical contact of the laser to the disc medium.

Feeling nostalgic, I located a 1970s vinyl 45 rpm music record I had in storage, blew off the dust, installed the round, plastic yellow spindle adapter insert, and played it on my old turntable.

The needle was a bit worn, and I probably should have cleaned the record off with some vinyl oil; however, the analog audio off the vinyl still sounded pretty good.

I forgot how accustomed we had become to hearing the occasional “pops” and “hisses” on a record.

While browsing through some articles about the history of the CD, I learned the agreed-upon design of the CD was in fact, based on the shape of a vinyl record.

I also found one interesting explanation of how the circular circumference of the CD came about.

One story said it was made to match the size of a Dutch beer coaster.

This anecdote may have originated in the offices of Holland’s Royal Philips Electronics, where I assume they drank a lot of beer.

Interestingly, the hole in a CD is the same size as a Dutch coin.

One hour’s worth of recorded audio content storage was originally planned for a single CD.

Instead, Sony Corp. reportedly decided to design the audio length of a CD based upon a famous conductor wanting the disc large enough to hold Beethoven’s 9th Symphony.

And so it came to be, one CD would hold 74 minutes’ worth of digital audio.

The very first CD player was sold by Sony Corp. in Japan Oct. 1, 1982.

By 1986, CD players were outselling record players; and by 1988, CD’s outsold all vinyl record sales.

2007 marked the production of the 200 billionth CD.

A very detailed history about the CD is available on the Philips Research webpage: “The history of the CD – The beginning” at:

Of course, these days most folks listen to digitized music directly from the cloud; but for me, the music from analog vinyl over a pair of JBL L96 speakers still sounds cool and groovy.

Be sure to follow me on Twitter at @bitsandbytes.

This article was originally published August 27, 2007, and has been modified by the writer.

(Image royalty license-to-use paid)

Thursday, August 3, 2017

FirstNet: An internet express lane

©Mark Ollig

Driving the daily commute on I-394 in and out of downtown Minneapolis, through rush-hour traffic, is slow and frustrating.

Those who endure this every workday understand it all too well.

Many drivers speed up their commute by using MnPASS.

By paying Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT), drivers obtain an express lane pass (MnPASS).

Physically, MnPASS is an electronic wireless identification transponder tag which is attached on the inside of a car’s windshield.

MnPass allows one to drive in the faster moving, specially designated, far-left express lane during peak-driving times.

“Overhead antennas and readers located on structures such as bridges, detect the MnPASS tag in the windshield. The reader records the tag ID and sends the information back to MnDOT’s central system, known as IRIS, which is used to control field devices, like toll signs and ramp meters, and to collect traffic data,” according to MnDOT.

During times of heavy traffic congestion, driving down the MnPASS express lane gets you to your destination faster and without the bottlenecks.

At times, the internet highway becomes congested; causing “bottlenecks” for users receiving information over it.

On a daily basis; police, firefighters, medical first responders, and other emergency teams use technology and digital communications by way of radio, cellular, and the internet for sending and receiving information.

When they require the internet service, it needs to be available and working.

Weather disasters and other emergencies can cause overloads in a cellular network system’s ability to provide service.

When these systems are handling enormous amounts of data, they can become congested and slow down the processing of not only the publics’, but emergency services’ cellular/internet accessibility, as well.

During emergencies, wireless networks often become overloaded with increased public data usage, as folks seek information or knowledge of the condition of friends or loved ones.

Severe overloads in the network will result in slowdowns, and probable service disruptions and breakdowns within communication routing links – the same links used by emergency response personal.

Wireless mobile/internet service providers do augment their networks by adding redundancy, better-quality equipment, and updated software in order to provide reliability and improved service.

Public safety is paramount, and emergency first responders need to have priority over regular internet traffic.

There needs to be a reserved internet express-lane, if you will, in order for emergency response personal to quickly and efficiently perform their duties during times of disaster.

An ongoing US government plan called First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) is being designed for use as a national emergency responder network.

Signed into law Feb. 22, 2012, FirstNet is an independent authority within the US Department of Commerce’s National Telecommunications and Information Administration.

“It’s the first project of this magnitude for our country, and of this capability nationwide. This is a very important infrastructure project for public safety,” explained Sue Swenson, FirstNet chair and technology executive.

Under federal law, FirstNet is required to consult with each state before beginning construction within said state.

At the end of the consultation process, FirstNet will submit a plan to each state governor for approval.

The governor will either approve the plan, thus permitting FirstNet to opt-in; or disapprove and opt-out.

FirstNet says their mission is to “ensure the building, deployment, operation, and maintenance of the first high-speed, nationwide wireless broadband network dedicated to public safety.”

This secure network will provide first responders with abundant bandwidth data capacity, extended geographical coverage, interoperability among connected response-team devices; uninterrupted service reliability, priority and preventative maintenance, and assured quality-of-service.

FirstNet divides the country into 10 regions; Minnesota is located in Region 5, along with Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio.

As of this writing, states which have already approved build-out plans and opted-in for FirstNet include: Iowa, Michigan, Kentucky, Arkansas, Wyoming, Virginia, West Virginia, and New Jersey.

Check out the US government’s FirstNet website at http:/

Minnesota is also involved with the FirstNet project.

The Minnesota-FirstNet Consultation Project webpage is located on the Minnesota Department of Public Safety’s website at

MnPASS webpage can be found at

Be sure to follow Bits & Bytes via Twitter at @bitsandbytes.